Survey of Energy Resources 2007: Natural Bitumen - Definitions.
The stripping steam below the flash zone, by decreasing the.C.
Current research into better production methods seek to reduce this environmental impact.New technology utilized for the recovery of heavy oil is constantly daewoo lanos 1998 workshop manual increasing recovery rates.Marketability: Simple Versus Complex Refineries.The product is still heavy and sour, but good enough to be transported via pipeline, freeing up much needed capacity.Simple refineries can only process light crude feedstock with a low sulphur content.Conventional heavy oil and bitumens differ in the degree by which they have been degraded from the original crude oil by bacteria and erosion.( Meyer, 2003 1 ) Often, bitumen is more viscous than cold molasses and does not flow at ambient conditions.Diluent is removed in the atmospheric column, along with naphtha and light gas-oil (LGO).These impurities pose processing challenges to the downstream refinery, limiting the marketability of the product and sometimes even the selling price.In contrast, upgraded bitumen (synthetic crude oil) is light, sweet and virtually impurity-free.Currently, about 60 of bitumen produced from the oil sands is diluted, typically with natural gas condensate, and sold directly to market as a heavy/sour blend.On the other hand, heavy crude is a better source for road asphalt mixes than light crude.Comparison OF light/sweet crude streams west texas intermediate (WTI) synthetic crude OIL (SCO) canadian light 827 kg/m3.6 API.24 Sulphur.6 MCR 5 ppm Ni 15 ppm V 865 kg/m3 32 API.1 Sulphur n/d MCR n/d Ni n/d V 825 kg/m3 40 API.Although heavy diluted bitumen has no shortage of customers, the diluent used during transport is very expensive and takes up 30 of pipeline volumes, driving up transportation costs for the shipper and limiting pipeline capacity."Blog Archives Physics World".