Manual map projection references

North-south compression equals the cosine of player the latitude (the reciprocal of east-west stretching equal-area cylindrical.
Equal-area maps are also called equivalent cracked or authalic.
Compared to the best fitting ellipsoid, a geoidal model would change the characterization of important properties such as calendar distance, conformality and equivalence.
The sphere's full surface requires an infinite map.For irregular planetary bodies such as arms asteroids, however, sometimes models plugin analogous to the geoid are used to project maps from.Distortion manual edit Main article: Tissot's indicatrix Tissot's Indicatrices on the Mercator carona projection megaupload The classical way of showing the distortion inherent in a projection is to use Tissot's indicatrix.The central meridian middle is the meridian to which the globe is rotated before projecting.These projections also have radial symmetry in the scales and hence in the distortions: map novik distances from the central point manual are computed by a function r ( d ) of the true distance d, ruby independent of the angle; correspondingly, circles with the central point.If an array field contains multiple documents with the same field name and the find method includes a sort on that repeating field, the returned documents may not reflect the sort order because the sort was applied to the elements of the array before the.Collignon projection, which in its most common forms represents each meridian as portable two straight line segments, one from each pole to the equator.Photographs of Earth from far enough away, such as the Moon, approximate farewell this perspective.Snyder, John Parr (1987).The projections are termed cylindric or conic because they can be regarded as developed on a cylinder or a cone, as the case may be, but it is as well to dispense with picturing cylinders and cones, since hemingway they have given rise to much misunderstanding.Since this projection scales north-south distances by the reciprocal of east-west stretching, it preserves area at the expense of shapes.The mapping of meridians to vertical lines can be visualized by imagining a cylinder whose axis coincides with the Earth's axis of rotation.However, now the Y-values increase northwards and the X-values increase to the East.These are some compromise projections: Which projection is best?Distances along the parallels to the north of both standard parallels or to the south of both standard parallels are stretched; distances along parallels between the standard parallels are compressed. While the first step inevitably distorts some properties of the globe, the developable surface can then be unfolded without further distortion.
23 Reference maps of the world often appear on compromise projections.
This is the defining characteristic of an equidistant projection such as the Azimuthal equidistant projection.

"The Classification of Projections of Irregularly-shaped manual map projection references Celestial Bodies" (PDF).
Map projections at the Wayback Machine (archived January 4, 2007) (3DSoftware).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.